Current Affairs | National | International | SSC | UPSC -13th February 2024

1. Lebanese judge Nawaf Salam appointed as the new President of ICJ

  • Lebanese judge Nawaf Salaam has been elected as the new President of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for a three-year term. Ugandan judge Julia Sebutinde was elected vice president. 
  • The ICJ, the UN's top court, consists of 15 judges elected by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council for a nine-year term. 
  • Judge Salam, who began his tenure at the ICJ on February 6, 2018, was Lebanon's Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations before joining the court. 
  • Sebutinde joined the ICJ on February 6, 2012. Previously, he served as a judge in the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Sebutinde gained attention after voting against all provisional measures ordered by the ICJ on 26 January in the genocide case against Israel. 
  • India is represented by Jodhpurborn Justice Dalvir Bhandari, who was elected a member of the International Court of Justice from 27 April 2012 and re-elected for one term from 6 February 2018. 

International Court of Justice 

  • The International Court of Justice was established by the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 and began functioning in April 1946. It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations which is located in the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). Unlike the six major institutions of the United Nations, it is the only institution which is not based in New York. 
  • Article 33 of the United Nations Charter lists methods like negotiation, inquiry, mediation etc. for peaceful resolution of disputes between nations. Some of these methods also involve third parties. 

2. The session of the International Small Tea Growers Confederation was held for the first time in Assam, India. 

  • The 25th session of the FAO Intergovernmental Group on Tea (FAO IGG on Tea) has been organized for the first time in Guwahati, Assam, India for three days from 31 January 2024. In which representatives of 77 countries participated. 
  • India took over as Chair of the FAO IGG on Tea from the United Kingdom for the next two years and the session was chaired by Saurav Pahari, Vice-Chairman, Tea Board India. 
  • In this meeting, an important decision has been taken to shift the headquarters of the Confederation of International Small Tea Holders (CITS) from China to India. 
  • The Central and Assam governments informed IGG on Tea about the steps taken for the development of smallholders. One of the initiatives of the government was to set up a dedicated research and development center at Tea Research Association (TRA), Tokalai in Jorhat district of Assam. 


  • On Tea Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ICC, which is under the United Nations, on tea. It is the apex global forum for tea where all tea producing and consuming countries deliberate on trends in tea production, consumption, trade and prices, including regular assessment of the global market situation and short-term outlook. 
  • Intergovernmental Group on Tea (IGG/Tea) – Under the title Consultative Committee 
  • Tea – Established by the Committee on Commodity Problems (CCP) at its 45th session in 1969. Intergovernmental group consisting of tea importing and exporting countries. 44 members (countries) and 14 observers who regularly attend IGG/TEA sessions. 

3. Leading cancer treatment therapy ‘CAR T-cell’ approved in India 

  • Following the approval of CAR T-cell therapy, a leading cancer treatment in India, a patient recently underwent the procedure, which freed the patient from cancer cells, marking a significant advance in access to cancer treatment in the country. 
  • In India, NexCAR19 is an indigenously developed therapy for B-cell cancer, collaboratively developed by ImmunoACT, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT-B) and Tata Memorial Hospital. 
  • Commercial use of this therapy for the treatment of certain blood cancers was approved by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in October 2023. 
  • NexCAR19 is the first CAR-T cell therapy to receive Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approval. 

CAR T-cell therapy 

  • Also known as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, is a type of immunotherapy that uses the patient's own immune system to fight cancer. 
  • CAR T-cell therapy is approved for leukemia (cancer arising from cells that produce white blood cells) and lymphoma (cancer arising from the lymphatic system). 
  • CAR T-cell therapy is often called ‘living drugs’. T-cells, a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection, are taken from a patient's blood through a process called apheresis. 
  • In the laboratory, T-cells are genetically modified to express a special protein called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on their surface. This CAR is designed to recognize and bind to a specific antigen (marker) found on cancer cells. 
  • Engineered T-cells multiply to large numbers in the laboratory. The expanded CAR T-cells are then infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they can identify and attack cancer cells expressing the target antigen. 

4. Sangeet Natak Akademi will establish its first regional 'South India Cultural Centre' in Hyderabad. 

  • Sangeet Natak Akademi (SNA), an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Culture and an apex body in the field of performing arts in the country, will set up a regional center in Hyderabad, Telangana to be known as the South India Cultural Centre. 
  • Former Vice President Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu and Shri G Kishan Reddy inaugurated the center on 12 February 2024. In keeping with the contribution of Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao to South India, the Academy has proposed the construction of an auditorium which will be known as the "Bharat Kala Mandapam". 
  • Ghantasala was not just a singer but a freedom fighter who spent more than a year in jail for participating in the Quit India Movement. His gift to his followers and enthusiasts included a rendition of the Bhagavad Gita. 
  • The academy has no presence in South India yet. The center is envisioned to promote research and documentation of music, folk and tribal arts, theater and puppetry. 

Sangeet natak academy

  • It is the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama of India. It was created in the year 1953 by a resolution of the Ministry of Education. Rajamannar became its first president. Presently, it is an autonomous body of the Ministry of Culture. 
  • The President of the Academy is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years. In 2006, he established the Ustad Bismillah Khan Youth Awards – an annual award for young artists. 

5. India To Replace Military Personnel With Technical Staff In Maldives 

  • India has announced the replacement of military personnel operating aviation platforms in the Maldives with competent Indian technical personnel. 
  • MEA Spokesperson Randhir Jaiswal confirmed the decision, stating that the current military personnel will be substituted with skilled technical personnel. This move aims to maintain operational expertise while addressing the Maldives’ request for the withdrawal of Indian troops. 
  • The first aircraft’s military personnel will be replaced by Indian technical personnel by March 10. Replacement of military personnel in the remaining two aircraft will be finalized by May 10. 

6. Gupteswar Forest, Odisha’s New Biodiversity Heritage Site 

  • Odisha has taken a significant step towards conservation by declaring the Gupteswar forest in Koraput district as its fourth Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS). 
  • This declaration marks a pivotal moment in the state’s environmental conservation efforts, joining the ranks of Mandasaru, Mahendragiri, and Gandhamardan, which have previously been recognized for their unique biodiversity. 
  • The Gupteswar forest spans over 350 hectares. This area is not just a haven for a wide array of flora and fauna but also holds a sacred significance, with its groves traditionally worshipped by the local community. 

7.Hyderabad’s 36th National Book Fair: February 9-19 

  • The NTR Stadium in Hyderabad hosts the 36th edition of the National Book Fair. Organized by the Hyderabad Book Fair Society, the event kicked off on February 9. The book fair runs until February 19. 
  • Drawing bibliophiles (People who love and collect books) from all corners of the city, the fair is a highly anticipated annual event. The fair aims to revive the reading culture.
  • The venue is named after civil rights activist Gaddar. The stage bears the name of Ravva Srihari, a renowned scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. A monument honoring Telangana martyrs is erected on the exhibition premises. 

8.Uttar Pradesh Implements Semiconductor Policy: Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath Addresses Assembly Queries 

  • During the state assembly’s budget discussion, CM Yogi responded to queries from the opposition, emphasizing the importance of stability and sustainability in driving infrastructure and industrial development in Uttar Pradesh. 
  • He highlighted the proactive measures taken by the state government, including the establishment of the Bundelkhand Industrial Development Authority (BIDA) between Kanpur and Jhansi, a significant development after 46 years. 
  • CM Yogi underscored the strategic importance of semiconductors in advancing industrial growth. Situated between Kanpur and Jhansi, this location marks a significant achievement after 46 years. 

9.Defence Minister Unveils The Statue General Bipin Rawat In Dehradun 

  • In a memorable event at TonsBridge School in Dehradun, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and Uttarakhand’s CM Pushkar Singh Dhami unveiled a statue of General Bipin Rawat, who was India’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). 
  • During the event, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh shared stories of General Rawat’s courage and dedication. He talked about a incident which motivated General Rawat to improve the operations of the Indian Army along the borders with Pakistan and China when he was the Army Chief and later as the CDS. 
  • Singh praised General Rawat for his commitment to the country’s security and his role as a true symbol of the military’s values. He mentioned how General Rawat’s life motto, ‘Die with your boots on,’ showed his dedication to duty until his last breath. 

10.145th Birth Anniversary Of Sarojini Naidu, National Women’s Day 

  • February 13, 2024 marks the 145th birth anniversary of Sarojini Naidu, a distinguished figure in India’s struggle for independence and a celebrated poet known as the “Nightingale of India.” 
  • This day is also recognized as the National Women’s Day as she played a pivotal role in advocating for women’s rights. Naidu’s literary prowess earned her the title of the “Nightingale of India.” 
  • Her poetry, characterized by vivid imagery and lyrical quality, resonated deeply with the Indian nationalist sentiment. Published in 1912, “In the Bazaars of Hyderabad” remains one of her most celebrated works. 

11.National Productivity Day 2024, Date, History, Theme & Significance 

  • Every year, India marks February 12 as National Productivity Day, launching the beginning of the Indian Productivity Week, which lasts until February 18.
  • With AI as the focal point of National Productivity Day 2024, the NPC highlights the technology’s potential as a catalyst for economic growth. 
  • This year’s theme, “Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Productivity Engine for Economic Growth,” is a testament to the NPC’s vision of harnessing cutting-edge technologies to propel India’s economic growth. 

12.International Epilepsy Day 2024 

  • International Epilepsy Day, observed on the 2nd Monday of February each year, is a pivotal event in the global healthcare calendar that aims to unite individuals affected by epilepsy. 
  • This year, the day was marked on 12 February 2024, underlining the ongoing efforts to foster community and support among epilepsy patients worldwide. 
  • The theme for International Epilepsy Day 2024, “Milestones on My Epilepsy Journey”, emphasizes the importance of recognizing and celebrating personal achievements amidst the challenges posed by epilepsy. 

13.Prime Minister Narendra Modi Unveils ‘PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana’

  • Under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has announced the launch of an ambitious scheme – the ‘PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana’. 
  • Aimed at fostering a greener future and facilitating the nation’s march towards energy self-sufficiency, this initiative is set to revolutionize the energy landscape of India. 
  • This pioneering project, with an earmarked investment exceeding Rs 75,000 crore, is designed to illuminate one crore households across the country by providing up to 300 units of free electricity every month, generated through solar power. 

14.Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik Enhances Pension Under MBPY 

  • In a move aimed at providing relief to beneficiaries of social security schemes in Odisha, CM Naveen Patnaik has announced a significant increase in monthly pension amounts under the Madhu Babu Pension Yojana (MBPY). 
  • A total of 36.75 lakh beneficiaries, including elderly individuals, widows, persons with disabilities, unmarried women, AIDS patients, transgender individuals, orphan children, and widows of COVID victims, will receive support. 
  • The new monthly amounts are set at Rs 1,000 for individuals aged up to 79 and Rs 1,200 for those aged 80 and above. This initiative aims to provide crucial financial assistance to vulnerable groups, ensuring their well-being and dignity. 

15. IIT Guwahati Unveils SWASTHA Project & ISO 5/6 Clean Room For Nanotech 

  • Shri S. Krishnan, inaugurated the groundbreaking SWASTHA project and the state-of-the-art ISO 5 and 6 Clean Room Facilities at IIT Guwahati’s Centre for Nanotechnology on 9th February 2024. 
  • First of their kind in the North Eastern region of India, it aims to revolutionize nanoelectronics and nanomaterial fabrication, semiconductor devices development, and quantum technologies. 
  • Jointly sponsored by MeitY and IIT Guwahati, it is supported by MeitY, focusing on delivering high-quality products and prototypes in micro/nano electronics and nanomaterials. 

16.Renowned Litterateur & Padma Shri Awardee Usha Kiran Khan Passes Away 

  • The literary world mourns the loss of Usha Kiran Khan, a distinguished writer and Padma Shri awardee, who passed away at the age of 78 after a brief illness in a private hospital on Sunday. 
  • Khan was bestowed with the Padma Shri in 2015, one of the highest civilian honors in India, acknowledging her exceptional contribution to literature. 
  • Her other accolades include the Sahitya Akademi Award, Mahadevi Verma Award, Dinakar National Award, and the Bharat-Bharati, among others, highlighting her illustrious career and dedication to the craft of writing. 

17.Luxury Train ‘Palace On Wheels’ To Begin Spiritual Journey 

  • After 42 years of its existence, the Palace on Wheels luxury train is set to embark on a new route, delving into the sacred Indian cities of Ayodhya, Kashi, and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. 
  • The Palace on Wheels, renowned for its opulence and comfort, has long been synonymous with exploring the royal heritage of Rajasthan. 
  • It will now offer a six-day spiritual journey, traversing from Delhi to Ayodhya, Prayagraj, Varanasi, Mathura, and Vrindavan. This religious tour aims to provide passengers with a profound immersion into the cultural and spiritual tapestry of India. 

18.Chief Secretary Dulloo Inaugurates 2nd Edition Of The SARAS Aajeevika Mela 

  • Chief Secretary Atal Dulloo inaugurated the 2nd edition of the SARAS Aajeevika Mela, organized by the Jammu & Kashmir Rural Livelihoods Mission (JKRLM). 
  • The primary objective of SARAS Aajeevika Mela is to empower rural women by providing a direct market for their products, enhancing their marketing skills, and fostering cultural exchange. 
  • Through exhibitions, sales, and cultural programs, the Mela aims to promote economic empowerment and preserve cultural heritage. 

19. Decoding India's economic realities-II

  • The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) regime has done little to address the major supply side factors driving food Inflation, beyond imposing ad hoc export bans. While cash transfer schemes like PM-Kisan or the distribution of free foodgrains to poorer households can provide much needed income support and relief, they can neither improve agricultural productivity nor modernize storage and marketing of food items like vegetables, pulses and cereals, whose prices are driving food inflation today. The only method conceived by the NDA to address these issues was to facilitate a wholesale corporate takeover of India's food and agricultural economy by enacting three farm laws in September 2020, which had to be eventually rescinded following a year-long protest by north Indian farmers. Since then, the NDA-II government has remained as clueless as the UPA (United Progressive Alliance)-Il was, in dealing with food inflation and agriculture. The second problem with UPA's growth story was that while exports grew rapidly, imports grew even faster, partly due to rising global crude prices, which worsened the current account balance and Increased external vulnerability.
  • During the NDA regime, both export and import growth declined, which impacted economic growth adversely but improved the external trade balance. Further, during the NDA decade, net FDI inflows increased as a share of GDP but remittance inflows, which remained significantly higher than net FDI inflows, declined compared to the UPA decade. The end-result has been mixed. The fall in India's foreign exchange reserves during NDA-I could be reversed during NDA-II, but the rupee has continued to depreciate vis-a-vis the dollar. The rupee-dollar exchange rate, which fell from 243 to 260 per dollar during the UPA rule, has fallen further to 183 during NDA's tenure. In the context of the post-pandemic surge in global inflation last year, the rupee depreciation has only imported the inflationary trend into the domestic economy. 
  • The third problem with UPA's higher growth and private investment phase was that it led to rising big ticket corporate defaults, initially concealed through debt restructuring, which ultimately left a Inge pile of legacy Non-Performing Assets (NTAS) in the banking system.
  • The Modi government is claiming credit for restoring the health of Public Sector Banks (PSBs) by reducing the Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPA) stock significantly. The fact remains that while cumulative NPA reduction under the NDA rule through all recovery channels, Including the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code was around 710.8 lakh crore (till March 2023), NPA write-offs have amounted to over 14.8 lakh crore in the same period (Table 1). The PSBs, which accounted for over 10.65 lakh crore of these NPA write offs had to absorb substantial losses because of NPA provisioning, making net losses between 2017-18 and 2019-20. 
  • Simultaneously, since 2017-18 massive doses of capital was infused into PSBs and financial institutions like the EXIM Bank, the Industrial Development Bank of India ODBD and the India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (UFCL), in order to bail them out. As disclosed in the Receipt Budgets, the Centre's total debt burden on account of these recapitalisation bonds have increased to 2.90 lakh crore by 2023-24, and their annual interest expense of over 19,000 crore is being met through the central government's revenue expenditure from 2019-20. Bank recapitalisation under the UPA rule, which was of a much smaller magnitude, was audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India CAG), covering the period between ( 2008-09 to 2016-17. However, bank recapitalisation executed under the NDA rule has not been audited by the CAG so far. Such an audit is necessary to evaluate the massive NPA write-offs by the PSBS and conclude whether private sector debt defaults have been subsidized through the public exchequer. 
  • Income and employment The efficacy of Union Budgets needs to be judged in terms of their impact on the lives of ordinary people. The Finance Minister has claimed in the Budget speech that under NDA rule "people are living better and earning better, with even greater aspirations for the future. Average real income of the people has increased by fifty per cent." However, how true is this claim? Official data shows that real per capita income in India, estimated by the inflation-adjusted Net National Income (NNI), registered a growth of 50.3% during the ten years of UPA rule (Table 2). During NDA's ten year rule, real per capita income grew by 43.6%, reflecting a slowdown in inflation 
  • The NESA verument often cites the annual Periodic Labour Force Survey (PUPS) finding to claim a reduction in the unemployment rate between 2017-18 and 2022 23. However, comparable examates from the NSS 68th round on Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, shows that unemployment rates, estimated by both current weekly status and adjusted usual status, grew very sharply between 2011-12 to 2017-18 (Ser Table 3). Moreover, while the unemployment rates declined betятел 2017-18 and 2022-23, the open unemployment rates of 2022-2023 were still higher, not only vis-a-vis the NSS 68th. round of 2011-12, but compared to all the eight previous NSS rounds conducted since 1972-73. The open unemployment rates have never been so high in India in the last 50 years. Unemployment was particularly high among the urban youth aged 15 to 29 years and among those with an educational level of secondary and above. Within those employed, the share of casual workers show a declining trend both in rural and urban areas, while the proportion of self-employed have increased progressively. 
  • In 2022 21, self-employed workers and helpers in cran account enterprises made up 63% of the rural labor force and almost 40% of the urban labor force. The share of regular wage/salaried workers has declined in rural areas and increased in urban areas between 2017-18 and 2022-23. However, the share of those without any social security benefit has increased within the salaried workers category. Even as agriculture's share in Gross Value Added (GVA) has declined to 14.4% in 2023-24, there has been an increase in the share of workers engaged in agriculture between 2017-18 and 2022-23. The share of workers engaged in informal non-agricultural enterprises has also increased since 2011-12. These trends in employment status from the PLFS data point towards growing informalisation of the labor force, contrary to official claims of increased formalization. 
  • The Finance Minister had claimed in the Budget speech that the government's "Skill India Mission" has trained 1.4 crore youth and 54 lakh youth have been up-skilled and reskilled. However, the dashboard in the official site of the PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana shows that out of 1.10 crore certified candidates, only 24.51 lakh, that is around 22%, have been "Reported Placed". Such excess supply of skilled workers in the economy and growing informalisation is working as a dampener on wage and earnings growth. PLFS data further show that the average earnings of casual labor in non-public work to be 18,547 in 2022-23, that of self-employed workers to be 13,347 and that of regular wage/salaried workers to be 120,039. While casual laborers average earnings has grown by around 49% in five years since 2017-18, and regular wage/salaried workers by 19%, average earnings of self-employed workers rose by 8.5% only in five years With annual retail inflation rate averaging 6% during NDA-II's tenure, less than 2% annual growth in average earnings for the self-employed clearly indicate a decline in their real earnings. 57% of India's labor force engaged in self-employment, are certainly not "living better and earning better, as the Finance Minister would want us to believe. It is their hopes and aspirations that stand betrayed. Prasenjit Bose is an economist and activist, Indranil Chowdhury teaches economics at PGDAV college, DU; Samiran Sengupta and Soumyadeep Biswas are data. 

20. NDA govt. wins Bihar trust vote; Opposition walks out 

  • The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Chief Minister Nitish Kumar won the floor test in the Bihar Assembly on Monday with the support of 129 MLAs. Three legislators of the Opposition Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) voted in favor of the government amid a walkout by all non-NDA MLAs. The government needed the support of at least 122 MLAs to win the majority test in the 243-member Assembly. 
  • Ahead of the trust vote, Bihar Assembly Speaker and RJD leader Awadh Bihari Choudhary, who had earlier refused to resign, was removed with 125 MLAs voting in favor of the motion and 112 opposing it. Deputy Speaker Maheshwar Hazari of the JD (U) then chaired the House. 
  • After the House passed the resolution for the removal of the Speaker, Mr. Kumar moved the motion seeking trust vote for the new NDA government he had formed with the BJP on January 28. The motion was passed 129-0 through voice vote after the Opposition walked out from the House. 

21. Appointing Deputy CMs not a breach of Constitution: SC 

  • The Supreme Court on Monday dismissed a petition challenging the appointment of Deputy Chief Ministers in States on the ground that no such position exists in the Constitution. 
  • A three-judge Bench headed by Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud found no harm in the ap- pointment of Deputy Chief Ministers, reasoning that they were after all Members of Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) of the States and Ministers of State governments. 
  • "Deputy CM's are first and foremost Ministers in the government of the State. A person who holds the office of the Deputy Chief Minister must at any event, within a stipulated period, be an MLA. Such appointments do not breach the Constitution," the CJI observed.
  • He said that these persons appointed did not draw a higher salary and were like any other Minister in the government 
  • But the petitioner, Public Political Party, said the appointments of Deputy CM's were motivated by religion and sectarian considerations. 
  • The petitioner argued that such appointments were against Article 14 (right to equality) and the tenet of Article 15 which holds that the State ought not to discriminate on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. However, the court dismissed the petition, saying it lacked substance. 

22. Hygiene, sanitation rating system for hotels, resorts, homestays yet to take off 

  • A government-initiated rating system for the hospitality sector, aimed at ensuring world-class hygiene and sanitation at hotels, resorts, and homestays, has become a non-starter, with no State opting for it so far. Barring a pilot project in Jammu and Kashmir, there has been no response from the States or the Union Territories despite the Union Tourism Ministry sending three communiques so far, the last one being in the first week of February, sources said. 
  • The ranking scheme Swachhata Green Leaf Rating was launched in November last year by the Union Tourism Ministry in collaboration with the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation. 
  • As part of the initiative, the State teams of Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (rural) and the Tourism Department are to organize workshops on the concept, process, and desired outcomes for the stakeholders. Owners and operators of the lodging services are encouraged to adopt good practices for im- proved and safe sanitation facilities, fecal sludge management, segregation of solid waste at sources, and promotion of alternatives to single-use plastic. 
  • According to the concept paper of the scheme, it is proposed to launch the Swachata Green Leaf Rating system at all hospitality facilities in the country with or without restaurants. 
  • A senior official of the Tourism Ministry told The Hindu that the government was exploring possibilities to incentivise the scheme at some point to encourage participation. 
  • The target groups are hotels, lodges, homestays, dharamshalas, and camps which have portable toilets. The rating will be based on compliance with the safe sanitation practices outlined in the guidelines. 
  • The objective is to prevent pollution in water-bodies and keep the environment clean. 
  • "We envision this rating system which is sought to be achieved through public participation to voluntarily engage the hospitality sector and contribute to cleaner and more sustainable tourism practices in India, the vision statement of the document read 
  • The official said that efforts would be made to focus on the rural areas, where hospitality units such as homestays, bed and breakfast facilities, small restaurants, and tea shops would be made aware of the scheme. They will also be helped with low-cost C technologies. 
  • A three-tiered committee system has been proposed for the implementation of the scheme, beginning with a Verification Sub-Committee formed by the Sub-Divisional Magistrate for onground verification, followed by a District Committee, which the District Collector will chair, and then a State-level committee, headed by the Chief D Secretary

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