Current Affairs | National | International | SSC | UPSC 12th March 2024

National News 

1.Andaman & Nicobar Command’s Historic All-Women Maritime Surveillance Mission 

  • Coinciding with International Women’s Day and the 40th anniversary of INAS 318, the Andaman & Nicobar Command achieved a significant milestone by conducting its first-ever all-women maritime surveillance mission. 
  • This landmark event underscores the commitment to gender equality and recognizes the indispensable role of women in national defense. 
  • The successful completion of the mission reaffirms the Andaman & Nicobar Command’s dedication to providing equal opportunities and fostering gender neutrality within the armed forces. 

2.Amit Shah Inaugurates Dilli Gramodaya Abhiyan Projects 

  • Union Home Minister Amit Shah inaugurated the commencement of Piped Natural Gas (PNG) facilities in 41 villages and various development projects in 178 villages under the ‘Dilli Gramodaya Abhiyan’. 
  • The initiative aims to uplift the infrastructure and living standards in rural areas of Delhi. The Dilli Gramodaya Abhiyan has a fund of Rs 960 crore to develop necessary infrastructure in Delhi’s urbanized villages and new urban areas. 

3.PM Modi Inaugurates 15 Airport Projects In Uttar Pradesh 

  • On March 10, Prime Minister Narendra Modi made headlines by inaugurating 15 significant airport projects, marking an unprecedented infrastructural addition in Uttar Pradesh’s Azamgarh. 
  • This extensive initiative, almost valued at ₹10,000 crore, encompasses a blend of new airports, expanded terminals, foundation stones for future airports, and other ancillary facilities. 
  • This massive project rollout includes 12 new terminal buildings at airports across diverse locations such as Pune, Kolhapur, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Delhi, Lucknow, Aligarh, Azamgarh, Chitrakoot, Moradabad, Shravasti, and Adampur. 

4.Centre notifies CAA rules ahead of polls 

  • Just days ahead of the announcement of Lok Sabha election, the Union Home Ministry on Monday noti- fied the Citizenship Amendment Rules, 2024 that would enable the implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) passed by Parliament in 2019. 
  • Though the law facilitates citizenship to undocumented people belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Parsi, Christian, and Jain communities from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, the rules state that applicants will have to provide six types of documents and specify the "date of entry" into India. 
  • Home Minister Amit Shah posted on X, "These rules will now enable minorities persecuted on religious grounds in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan to acquire citizenship in our nation. With this notification, PM Shri Narendramodiji has delivered on another commitment and realized the promise of the makers of our Constitution to the Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians living in those countries." 
  • The list of documents includes birth certificate, tenancy records, identity papers, any license, or educational certificate issued by a government authority in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. 

5.Liberal democracy has declined significantly in India: report 

  • India, which was downgraded to the status of an "electoral autocracy in 2018, has declined even further on multiple metrics to emerge as "one of the worst autocratisers", according to the "Democracy Report 2024" released by the Gothenburg-based V-Dem Institute. 
  • The report categorizes countries into four regime types based on their score in the Liberal Democratic Index (LD): Liberal Democracy, Electoral Democracy, Electoral Autocracy, and Closed Autocracy. "In- dia, with 18% of the world's population, accounts for about half of the population living in autocratising countries," the report said. 
  • Noting that almost all components of democracy were getting worse in more countries than they were getting better, the report singled out freedom of expression, clean elections, and freedom of association/civil society as the three worst affected components of democracy in autocratising countries. South and Central Asia regressed significantly, with the level of "liberal democracy enjoyed by the average Indian now "down to levels last seen in 1975...when Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency in India''. As per the V-Dem classification, a liberal democracy is one where, in addition to the requirements of electoral democracy such as regular free and fair elections, mechanisms for judicial independence and constraints on executive overreach are robust, alongside rigorous protection of civil liberties and equality before law. "The Modi-led government also continues to suppress the freedom of religion rights. Intimidation of political opponents and people protesting government policies, and silencing of dissent in academia are now prevalent," the report noted. 
  • With regard to India, the report said that a third consecutive term for the JP and Mr. Modi ``could lead to further automatisation given the already substantial democratic decline under Modi's leadership and the enduring crackdown on minority rights and civil society". 
  • V-Dem's Democracy Report is a collaborative project involving 4,200 scholars from 180 countries, and is based on 31 million datasets that cover 202 countries from 1789 to 2023. 

6.Modi to launch 205 'One Station, One Product' stalls for Southern Railway 

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will Inaugurate 'One Station, One Product' (OSOP) stalls at 205 railway stations across Southern Rail way, including 168 in Tamil Nadu, through video conferencing on Tuesday, 
  • The OSOP scheme which promotes the 'Local for Vocal' vision of the Government of India provides a market for local/indige- nous products and creates additional income opportunities for the marginalized sections of the society, Southern Railway General Manager R.N. Singh said. 
  • Addressing press persons here, Mr. Singh said as part of the 285,000-crore railway projects that would be dedicated to the nation on Tuesday, Mr. Modi would launch another Vande Bharata Express between Dr. MGR Chennai Central and Mysuru. While the regular services of Train No. 20663/20664 Mysuru- Dr. MGR Chennai Central-Mysu-ru Vande Bharat (except Wednesday) would commence on April 5, the train would run between Chennai Central and SMVT Bengaluru from March 14 to April 4, with stops at Katpadi and Krishnarajapuram. 
  • Mr. Modi will also flag off a new Express train on the Kollam-Tirupati-Kollam route and extension of the Thiruvananthapu-ram-Kasargod Vande Bharata Express up to Mangalore Central.
  • Rehousing facilities would be launched at Singaperumal Koil, Gangaikondan, Theni, Pattukottai, Thiruthuraipoondi and Valliyur. 
  • Mr. Modi will inaugurate Jan Aushadi Kendras at Dindigıl, Erode, Trichy and Palakkad railway stations where passengers would be able to purchase quali ty generic medicines at an affordable price. Among other pro jects, a rail coach restaurant would be inaugurated at Chennai Central. 

International News 

7.China’s New Territorial Sea Baseline In Gulf Of Tonkin Raises Concerns 

  • China recently announced a new territorial sea baseline in the northern part of the Gulf of Tonkin, shared with Vietnam, sparking concerns about potential impacts on existing agreements and regional stability. 
  • China disclosed seven base points forming the baseline for its sovereignty claims in the Gulf of Tonkin, also known as Beibu Gulf. 
  • The Gulf of Tonkin has been a historically significant area for maritime demarcation between China and Vietnam in the South China Sea. 

8.China registers protest against PM's visit to Arunachal Pradesh 

  • China on Monday said It "strongly de-flores Prime Minister Narendra Modi's recent visit to Arunachal Pradesh and had raised concerns with India, a sharp statement that is expected to be rebutted by New Delhi. 
  • The Chinese response was to a question from state media about the visit on March 9 by Mr. Modi, when he inaugurated a number of development projects, including the Sela Tunnel, an-all weather strategic link for Tawang and Kameng districts, near the Line of Actual Control (LAC). 
  • Built at a height of 13,000 feet, the 1.5-km Sela Tunnel is expected to aid development in border villages and allow for quicker military troops and hardware deployment at the boundary with China, amid continuing tensions and the four-year stand-off with the Chinese PLA. 
  • Asked about the visit, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson said that Beijing had made "solemn representations" to New Delhi about the Prime Mi nister's travel, making a claim over Arunachal Pradesh that India has consis- tently rejected.
  • 'Disrupts situation' "India's relevant moves only complicate the boundary question and disrupt the situation in the border areas between the two countries, Chinese MFA spokesperson Wang Wenbin said at a briefing in another exchange over. 
  • Beijing, referring to Aruna chal Pradesh, which the Chinese call "Zangnan '', as Chinese territory, India, which has full control of the State, has always asserted the whole of Aruna chal Pradesh as India's sovereign territory. "China strongly deplores and firmly opposes the Indian lead er's visit to the east section of the China-India boundary," Mr. Wang added. Referring to the China India border dispute, where India and China's special representatives hive not met since the LAC stand-off began in April 2020, Mr. Wang said that it was "yet to be solved". "India has no right to arbitrarily develop the area of Zangnan in China," he claimed, in the strongest such statement on a visit by the Prime Minister, although China has protested against visits to Arunachal Pradesh by high-level dignitaries in the past as well. 
  • The External Affairs Ministry did not immediately respond to the statement, which comes soon after poris that India plans to to crease troop levels at the LAC by freeing up about 10,000 soldiers for deployment, Reacting to a report by news agency Bloom berg, which was not formally confirmed by the be fence Ministry, the Chinese MPA had said that sending more troops would not "help ease the situation" in the border areas or in "sa F feguarding tranquility and safety On Thursday, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh addressed a conference, saying that the Indian Army was equipped to give a "befitting reply" to anyone who "casts an evil eye" on the country's borders. Since the stand-off began in 2020, India and China have held 21 rounds of senior military commander talks on the LAC, and several rounds of talks of the multi-ministerial Working Mechanism on Consultation and Coordination (WMCC) on border affairs, and negotiated a détente on five of seven friction points along the boundary in Ladakh 

9. UAE launches "India by the Creek" festival to celebrate deep ties with India 

  • The UAE inaugurated the first “India by the Creek” festival in Dubai on 8 March 2024, bringing the vibrant culture of India to Al Seef Park. The three-day festival highlights the long-standing historical and cultural ties between India and Dubai. 
  • "India by the Creek" offers a diverse range of programs, including musical performances, literary discussions, poetry readings and interactive workshops. This immersive experience promises to strengthen the deep cultural ties between India and Dubai, paving the way for a future rich in artistic expression. Al Seef Park, located on Dubai Creek, has been a bustling center of trade for centuries, serving as an important link between the two regions. Dhows laden with spices, textiles and other goods once crossed these waters, fostering a rich exchange that continues today. 
  • The relationship between India and UAE has transformed into a comprehensive strategic and economic partnership. The two countries are strong partners, and Dubai Creek has played a historic role in this development. 
  • The collaborative effort behind the festival is a testament to the strong bond between the two countries. Dubai Duty Free, Consulate General of India, Dubai, Teamwork Arts, Dubai Economy & Tourism and Khaleej Times have come together to create this important milestone. 

State News 

10.Tamil Nadu Launches ‘Neengal Nalama’ Scheme To Review Implementation Of Welfare Programs

  • The Tamil Nadu government has launched the ‘Neengal Nalama’ (Are you fine?) scheme, a beneficiary outreach program aimed at reviewing the implementation of flagship schemes and addressing the grievances of the public. 
  • Under the ‘Neengal Nalama’ scheme, people will be directly contacted by the Chief Minister, Chief Secretary, Department Heads, Department Secretaries, and District Collectors to inquire about their level of benefit and to identify any bottlenecks related to various government schemes. 

11.Geological Survey Of India Unveils Stratigraphic Column In Andhra Pradesh 

  • The Geological Survey of India, State Unit: Andhra Pradesh, unveiled a representative Stratigraphic Column of the Cuddapah Supergroup in Vajrakarur Diamond Processing Camp, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. 
  • This coloumn represents the geological history and evolution of the Cuddapah Basin, the second-largest Proterozoic basin in India. It reinforces GSI’s commitment to making Vajrakarur Camp a significant educational and research hub. 

12.Assam CM Inaugurates 50 MW Solar Project In Sonitpur 

  • The Chief Minister of Assam, Dr. Himanta Biswa Sarma, performed the Bhumi Pujan ceremony for a 50 MW Solar Project in Sonitpur district. 
  • The project, being developed by SJVN Green Energy Limited (SGEL), holds promise for bolstering Assam’s renewable energy sector and contributing to sustainable development. 
  • The 50 MW Solar Project, costing Rs. 291 crores, will generate 101 million units of green energy in its first year. Over 25 years, it’s expected to produce around 2,319 million units of energy. 

13.Amitav Ghosh honored with 'Erasmus Award' of Netherlands 

  • On 7 March 2024, Indian writer Amitav Ghosh was awarded the 'Erasmus Prize' 2024 for highlighting the climate change crisis. 67-year-old Ghosh has been honored with the award by the Premium Erasmianum Foundation of the Netherlands. 
  • The foundation said during the award that Ghosh used his pen to show that the climate crisis is a cultural crisis that is the result of a lack of imagination. 
  • Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands founded the Premium Erasmianum in 1958. The award led to the establishment of the Premium Erasmianum, a cultural institution active in the fields of humanities, social sciences and arts. 
  • It is a distinguished award for individuals or institutions who have made an extraordinary contribution to culture or scholarship in Europe and beyond. The award carries an incentive amount of 150,000 Euros. 
  • It also has a decoration designed by Bruno Nienaber van Eyben. Patrons of the Foundation present the awards during a ceremony. Which usually takes place in the Royal Palace of Amsterdam. 

Amitav Ghosh 

  • Born in Kolkata in 1956, Ghosh studied social anthropology at Oxford. Ghosh divided his time between India and the United States. He has received many awards so far in his life, including the 2018 Jnanpith Award, India's highest literary award. 
  • In 2019, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Maastricht University. Amitav Ghosh is the author of bestsellers like The Nutmeg's Curse, The Hungry Tide, The Great Derangement. Apart from this, Ghosh's major works include Sea of Poppies, River of Smoke and Flood of Fire. 

14.ED attaches 10.29 cr. of Trinamool's funds in 'cheating' case 

  • The Enforcement Directorate (ED) on Monday said it had provisionally attached 10.29 crore of the Trinamool Congress in the form of a demand draft in the alleged money laundering case involving Alchemist Group and others. 
  • Paid to aviation firms The Central agency alleged that a part of the funds raised through cheating had been used by Alchemist Group for making payments to aviation companies on behalf of the Trinamool. 
  • "The ED investigation also revealed that an amount of ₹10.29 crore was paid by Alchemist Airways Private Ltd. to various aviation/helicopter companies for the aviation services availed by All Irr dia Trinamool Congress (AITC)...during the campaigning for 2014 Lok Sabha election for its star campaigners like Mamata Banerjee, CM of West Bengal; Mukul Roy, ex-Union Railway Minister; Moon Moon Sen; and Nusrat Ja han, MP," it said. 
  • Based on its findings, the ED's Delhi zonal office attached the amount in the form of "demand draft tendered by it (the party) during the investigation into the offense of money laundering by Alchemist Group and others", Stating that Alchemist Group was headed by Karn war Deep Singh, a former Rajya Sabha member of the Trinamool, the agency said it had initiated the probe based on the first information reports (FIRS) registered by the Lucknow unit of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), and the police of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal against various individuals and companies of the group 

Defense News 

15.BBBS Secures Biggest Anti-Drone Tech Order Under IDEX 

  • Big Bang Boom Solutions (BBBS), a homegrown IDEX (Innovations for Defence Excellence) startup, clinches a major order exceeding Rs 200 Crores for its state-of-the-art anti-drone technology. 
  • Signed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) with BBBS, this contract marks the largest under the IDEX initiative, aimed at benefiting the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force. 
  • BBBS’s Vajra Sentinel System represents a cutting-edge solution designed to detect, track, and neutralize drones across remarkable ranges. 

Business News 

16.Aditya Birla Capital, Aditya Birla Finance Announce A Scheme Of Amalgamation For Creation Of A Large NBFC

  • Aditya Birla Capital’s decision to merge with its wholly-owned subsidiary, Aditya Birla Finance, is poised to reshape the NBFC landscape in India. The board of Aditya Birla Capital approved the merger on March 11, subject to regulatory approvals. 
  • This strategic move not only consolidates their financial services arm but also aligns with RBI’s regulations, avoiding the need for Aditya Birla Finance to go public. 
  • Upon completion, Aditya Birla Capital will transition from a holding company to an NBFC, enhancing financial strength and flexibility. 

Important Days News 

17.World Plumbing Day 2024 

  • World Plumbing Day, held annually on 11 March, is an international event initiated by the World Plumbing Council to recognize the crucial role plumbing plays in societal health and amenity. 
  • The WPC works year-round, in partnership with organizations like the World Health Organization, to promote the benefits of safe plumbing. 
  • World Plumbing Day is an opportunity to introduce and reinforce healthy bathroom habits, such as proper handwashing techniques and maintaining a clean bathroom environment. 

Summits & Conferences News 

18.Yaounde Declaration: African Health Ministers Commit To Ending Malaria Deaths 

  • In a landmark gathering in Yaoundé, Cameroon, health ministers from 11 African nations, along with global malaria partners and stakeholders, convened to address the escalating malaria crisis in Africa. 
  • Despite available tools and systems, malaria cases surged globally, with Africa bearing the brunt, accounting for 94% of cases and 95% of deaths in 2022. 
  • Global malaria cases rose from 233 million to 249 million between 2019 and 2022. Africa witnessed a significant increase from 218 million to 233 million cases during the same period, marking it as the epicenter of the malaria crisis. 

Appointments News 

19.AS Rajeev Appointed As Vigilance Commissioner In The Central Vigilance Commission 

  • AS Rajeev was appointed as Vigilance Commissioner in the Central Vigilance Commission by the Honourable President of India on 9th February 2024. 
  • He took the oath as Vigilance Commissioner on 11th March 2024 before the Central Vigilance Commissioner, who was authorized by the President of India under the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003. 
  • Shri AS Rajeev is a career banker with over 38 years of experience across four banks – Syndicate Bank, Indian Bank, Vijaya Bank, and Bank of Maharashtra. 

20.Kishor Makwana Assumes Charge As Chairman Of National Commission For Scheduled Castes 

  • Kishor Makwana has assumed the charge of Chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) in New Delhi. Shri Luv Kush Kumar has also taken charge as a Member of the NCSC.
  • After assuming his new role, Shri Kishor Makwana addressed the media, expressing his commitment to working tirelessly to safeguard the interests and rights of the Scheduled Castes community. 
  • Shri Makwana emphasized that the Commission will not only ensure justice for the Scheduled Castes but will also remain proactive in preventing any form of injustice against the community. 

Awards News 

21.Delhi Airport Clinches ACI-ASQ’s Best Airport In Asia-Pacific Title For 6th Straight Year 

  • Delhi Airport has once again asserted its dominance in the aviation sector by securing the prestigious title of ‘Best Airport’ in the Asia-Pacific region for the sixth consecutive year. 
  • This accolade, bestowed by the Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards, reaffirms Delhi Airport’s commitment to excellence and leadership in providing top-notch services to passengers. 
  • The Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Best Airport award for 2023 was conferred upon Delhi Airport in the category of over 40 Million Passengers Per Annum (MPPA) by the Airports Council International (ACI). 

22. Oppenheimer received the Best Film Award at the 96th Oscar Awards held in Los Angeles, USA. 

  • The 96th Academy Awards, i.e. the 2024 Oscars, were held in Los Angeles on March 11, 2024 (India time), with Christopher Nolan's Oppenheimer winning in seven categories. 
  • The film was nominated in 13 categories. The film also won awards for Best Film and Best Actor, as well as Best Film Editing,Cinematography and Original Score. 
  • Killian Murphy has received the Best Actor award for this film. Christopher Nolan has produced this film on the biography of Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb. For the film, Robert Downey Jr. received the Best Supporting Actor award and Christopher Nolan received the Best Director award. 
  • Fan favorites Cillian Murphy and Robert Downey Jr. won their first Oscars, while Nolan won his first directing award. The ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel for the fourth time. 
  • Tribute was paid to Indian art director and production designer Nitin Chandrakant Desai during the Oscar awards ceremony. He died on 2 August 2023. 

Agreements News 

23.NGEL Signs MoU With RVUNL To Develop Renewable Energy & Green Hydrogen Projects 

  • On March 10th, 2024, both NTPC and its renewable energy arm NGEL signed non-binding MoUs with Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (RVUNL) in Jaipur. 
  • These agreements represent a significant stride towards improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the Chhabra Thermal Power Plant. 
  • NTPC and its affiliates will undertake a 15-year to 20-year annuity-based R&M project for older thermal units of RVUNL. The goal is to revamp existing units to meet contemporary efficiency and sustainability standards. 

Sports News 

24.Yashasvi Jaiswal, Sutherland Named ICC Players Of The Month For February 2024 

  • Yashasvi Jaiswal, the young Indian opener, has been named the ICC Men’s Player of the Month for February 2024. 
  • The 22-year-old Jaiswal has made an incredible start to his international career, emerging as one of the best Test openers in the world. 
  • His performances in February were nothing short of extraordinary, as he slammed two scintillating double centuries in back-to-back Test matches against England. 

Science & Technology News 

25.India Launches Fastest Indigenous IP/MPLS Router 

  • Union Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw, unveiled India’s fastest and indigenously developed IP/MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) router in Bengaluru. The router, boasting a capacity of 2.4 tdps, marks a significant milestone in India’s technological advancement 
  • Developed through collaboration between the Department of Telecom, CDOT, and Nivetti, the router represents a testament to India’s prowess in technological innovatiON. 

26.96th Osacar 2024 winners announced 

  • The 96th Academy Awards happened at the Dolby Theater in Hollywood. 
  • It was a night full of exciting wins and unexpected moments. The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, celebrate both the artistic and technical achievements in movies. 
  • They’re given out every year by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) in the United States.  
  • The awards honor outstanding work in filmmaking as decided by the Academy’s voting members. 

  • List of Osacar awards: -

Defence News 

26.INS Tir participates in Exercise Cutlass Express in Seychelles

  • INS Tir, the lead ship of First Training Squadron (1TS), participated in Exercise Cutlass Express 24 (CE-24) held at Port Victoria, Seychelles. 
  • The exercise was inaugurated by Seychelles President Wavel Ramkalawan with dignitaries from India, the US and African countries present on the occasion.
  • As part of Exercise Cutlass Express, the Indian Navy actively engaged with participants from 16 friendly foreign countries. 

Recent Exercise 

  • 12th edition of MILAN Naval Exercise – Visakhapatnam 
  • Indian Air Force Conduct Exercise Vayu Shakti-2024 – Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. 
  • 1st edition of Military Exercise – SADA TANSEEQ between India & Saudi Arabia – Rajasthan 
  • Desert Knight Exercise between India, France, UAE – over Arabian Sea 
  • 11th edition of Khanjar Exercise between India-Kyrgyzstan – Bakloh, Himachal Pradesh 

Important day 

27.March 12 – National Mauritius Day 

  • Mauritius Day is celebrated every year on 12 March. 
  • This national holiday is a time to commemorate the country’s independence from Britain in 1968 and its transition to a republic in 1992. 
  • The history of Mauritius Day dates back to 1959, when British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan gave his famous “Winds of Change” speech, outlining the British government’s intention to grant independence to many of its overseas colonies, including Mauritius. 
  • This led to an increasing call for self-rule in Mauritius, and the 1966 elections resulted in a victory for an alliance of the Mauritius Labour Party and other self-rule parties. 
  • On 12 March, 1968, Mauritius was proclaimed a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II remaining head of state. Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam also became the country’s first Prime Minister. 
  • Twenty-four years later, on 12 March, 1992, Mauritius was proclaimed as a republic within the British Commonwealth

Major Award 

  • Best Film - Oppenheimer 
  • Best Actor - Cillian Murphy -Oppenheimer 
  • Best Actress - Emma Stone - Poor Things 
  • Best Supporting Actress - De'Vine Joy Randolph - The Holdovers 
  • Best Supporting Actor - Robert Downey Jr. - Oppenheimer 
  • Best Director - Christopher Nolan -Oppenheimer 
  • Best Adapted Screenplay –American Fiction – Cord Jefferson 
  • Best Original Screenplay - Anatomy of a Fall - Justin Trite and Arthur Harari 
  • Best Original Song – What Am I Made For? - Barbie (Billie Eilish, Phineas O'Connell) 
  • Best Original Score - Ludwig Goransson - Oppenheimer

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