Current Affairs | National | International | SSC | UPSC 19th May 2024

National News 

1. Women with no sexual autonomy twice likely to get STIs: study 

  • We had controlling husbands and had experienced intimate partner violence in their married life and are more at risk of developing sexually transmitted infection (STI) or reproductive tract infection (RTI) than women who do not report facing control or intimate partner violence (IPV) in their marriage, a new study reveals. 
  • The study analyzed data obtained from a sample size of 73,895 women in National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-2021) and was conducted by researchers in the School of Health Systems Studies in Mumbai-based Tata Institute of Social Sciences and Centre for Study of Regional Development in JNU. 
  • One in nearly every 12 married women in the age group of 15-49 years in India had experienced at least one sexually transmitted infection or reproductive tract infection over a period of one year, the study states. 
  • To gauge if women had experienced STI/RTI, those who reported being sexually active, were asked whether they had a disease through sexual contact, a bad-smelling abnormal genital discharge, and a genital sore or ulcer in the last 12 months preceding the survey. 
  • The study analyzes in detail questions posed to women in NFHS-5 pertaining to sexual autonomy if a wife knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease, is she justified in asking use of a condom when they have sex; if a wife knows her husband has sex with other women, is she justified in refusing to have sex with him; and can a wife say no to her husband when she does not want to have sexual intercourse with him. 
  • The study reveals that a majority 73% women of the total sample size claimed that they had sexual autonomy. A third of the same sample size (31%) had faced intimate partner violence be it physical which included the husband pushing the wife, kicking her, dragging or punching her and so on, sexual which includes the husband forcing the wife to have sex with him or emotional where the husband has humiliated or threatened to hurt the wife or someone close to her or insulted her. Also, 46% of the same sample size said that they faced controlling attitudes from their husbands, which included the husband being jealous if the wife talked to other men, frequently accusing the wife of being unfaithful, not permitting the wife from meeting female friends, trying to limit wife's contact with her core family, insisting on knowing where she is at all times, and not trusting her with money. 
  • "The study reveals that STI/RTI infection was substantially higher among women who experienced intimate partner violence (18.4%) as compared to those women who did not (9.7%). Also 15.9% women who face controlling attitudes of their husbands reported STI/RTI as compared to 9.4% women who reported STI/RTI but did not face control from their husband," said Pintu Paul, co-author of the study. 
  • Controlling attitudes Women who had no sexual autonomy and were exposed to intimate partner violence were 2.3 times more likely to have STI/RTI than those who had sexual autonomy and were not ex- posed to intimate partner violence. Similarly, women without sexual autonomy and whose husbands endorsed controlling attitudes were over twice more likely to be exposed to RTI than those who had sexual autonomy and had not experienced their husband's controlling attitudes. 
  • Mr. Paul further said women who had sexual autonomy and freedom of physical mobility were 24% less likely to experience RTI compared to those who did not. Women's freedom of movement is measured by their ability to go to the market, the health center and places outside the village or community. 
  • However, the influence of household decision-making was greater than physical mobility in reducing the risk of RTI among women. "Women who had sexual autonomy and decision-making autonomy had a 36% decreased likelihood of having RTI infection than those who had not," Mr. Paul emphasized. A woman's household decision-making ability is assessed in terms of whether she can take decisions about her own health care, make large purchases for the household and visit family or relatives. 
  • Mr. Paul also said, "After controlling for sociodemographic factors in the full model, women with sexual autonomy were associated with a 12% lower likelihood of having STI/RTI than those without autonomy." sexual.
  • Also, the prevalence of STI/RTI was higher among younger women aged 15 to 24 years (13%) and 25 to 34 years (13.2%) as compared to older women aged 35 to 49 years (11.6%). 
  • "Our findings call for policy-level interventions to prevent child marriage and domestic violence against women and change regressive social norms that curb women's decision-making ability and freedom of movement," Mr. Paul added. International News 

2. South African government for speedy issuance of visas for Indian tourists 

  • The South African government is evolving mechanisms for the speedy clearance of visa applications from India and working on a proposal for introducing e-visa for Indian tourists to the country, Patricia de Lille, Minister for Tourism, has said. 
  • Speaking to media persons on the sidelines of the just concluded Africa Indaba, the South African tourism fair, recently, Ms. Lille said the first quarter of 2024 saw 16,000 Indian visitors reaching the country. The event was organised by South Africa Tourism. 
  • South African President Cyril Ramaphosa has sought a joint report from the Ministers of Tourism, Home Affairs and State Security on the measures for the speedy clearance of visas. The Tourism Ministry has taken up a proposal for a visa waiver for up to 90 days for passengers from both China and India with the President, she said. 
  • Currently, passengers from Russia and Brazil get a visa waiver up to 90 days in one calendar year. They also have the option to apply for an extension of visa while in South Africa. The facility shall be extended to passengers from both India and China, who are also members of the BRICS alliance, she said. 
  • Ms. Lille, who was in Goa during the recent G-20 meeting, felt the e-visa system was not delivering the desired results for tourists from both India and China. At times, people have to leave their passports with the South African embassies for up to 25 days. The Tourism Ministry has set up a facilitation center in the office of the Minister to help people get their visas as soon as possible, she said. 
  • The South African government has engaged South African Airways to operate more flights to India. The national carrier has not fully recovered from the impacts of CC VID-19. Johannesburg Mumbai is one of the routes that the company has not been able to reviv since COVID. The government is hoping to strike deal with Air India to operate more flights, she said. 

3. Ronaldo tops Forbes’ list of highest-paid athletes again 

  • Portugal’s Cristiano Ronaldo topped Forbes’ list of highest-paid athletes for the fourth time in his career while Spanish golfer Jon Rahm moved up to second following his sensational switch to Saudi-backed LIV Golf. 
  • Ronaldo became the world’s highest-paid athlete after his move to Saudi Arabian side Al-Nassr and Forbes said the 39-year-old’s estimated total earnings were in the region of $260 million, an all-time high for a soccer player. 
  • His on-field earnings amounted to $200 million while his off-field earnings were $60 million thanks to sponsorship deals where brands make use of his 629 million Instagram followers. 
  • Third on the list is record eight-times Ballon d’Or winner Lionel Messi, who made a lucrative switch to Major League Soccer side Inter Miami, helping the Argentine World Cup winner earn $135 million. The 36-year-old has earned $65 million in on-field earnings but $70 million off it thanks to deals with major sponsors such as Adidas and Apple. 
  • Los Angeles Lakers forward LeBron James is fourth at $128.2 million and although the 39-year-old. 

4. Venezuela becomes first country to lose all Glaciers 

  • Venezuela is the first country to lose all of its glaciers, which is a huge change in the environment. 
  • New research shows that the Humboldt glacier in the Andes, which used to be very big, has shrunk to less than 2 hectares, which means it is no longer a glacier but an ice field. 
  • The Sierra Nevada de Mérida Mountain range in Venezuela used to have six glaciers. As of 2011, five of these glaciers had melted away, leaving only the Humboldt glacier. 
  • Professionals thought Humboldt would last for another ten years, but new tests show it has melted much more quickly than expected. 

About Humboldt Glacier 

  • In northwest Greenland, the Humboldt Glacier is the longest and biggest tidewater glacier in the Northern Hemisphere. It is about 110 kilometres long. Within the Kane Basin, this glacier flows from the Greenland Ice Sheet. 
  • Satellite data shows that it has been receding a lot over the past few years, which shows that climate change is having an effect. 

About Venezuela 

  • Capital- Caracas 
  • Currency- Venezuelan bolívar 
  • President- Nicolás Maduro 
  • Official language- Spanish
  • Continent- South America 

Appointment News

5. A.Y.V. Krishna & N. Venu Gopal appointed as Additional Directors in CBI 

  • Senior IPS officers A.Y.V. Krishna and N. Venu Gopal have been appointed as additional directors in the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). 
  • Krishna, a 1995-batch Indian Police Service (IPS) officer of Assam-Meghalaya cadre, is currently working as Inspector General in the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). 
  • He has been inducted as the additional director of CBI for a tenure up to August 6, 2028. 
  • Krishna’s batchmate Venu Gopal (Himachal Pradesh cadre) is presently working as joint director in the CBI. 
  • He has been appointed as additional director, CBI for a tenure up to May 24, 2027. 

Recent Appointment in Defence Sector 

  • Chief of Personnel (CoP) of Indian Navy – Vice Admiral Sanjay Bhalla 
  • DG of National Security Guard (NSG) – Nalin Prabhat (replace Daljit Singh Chaudhary) 
  • Special Director in the Intelligence Bureau (IB) – Sapna Tewari 
  • Chief of Naval Staff – Dinesh Kumar Tripathi (replace R. Hari Kumar) 
  • Joint Director in CBI – Anurag Kumar 
  • Inspector General in SPG – Love Kumar 

6. RBI approves appointment of Pradeep Natarajan as IDFC FIRST Bank 

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has approved the appointment of Pradeep Natarajan as Whole Time Director on the Board of IDFC FIRST Bank for three years. 
  • IDFC FIRST Bank had reported a net profit of Rs 724 crore for the fourth quarter ended March 2024. 
  • The bank’s gross Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) reduced to 1.88 per cent of gross advances as of March 31, 2024, from 2.51 per cent by the end of March 2023. 

About IDFC First Bank 

  • Founded – October 2015 
  • Headquarters – Mumbai 
  • MD & CEO – V. Vaidyanathan Recent 

Appointment in Banking & Insurance Sector 

  • ED of RBI – R Lakshmi Kanth Rao 
  • Chairman of HDFC Life – Keki Mistry 
  • Head of Key Relations Group in SBI General Insurance – Jaya Tripathi 
  • CEO of Paytm Money – Rakesh Singh 
  • MD & CEO of Ujjivan Small Finance Bank – Sanjeev Nautiyal (replace Ittira Davis; for 3 years) effect from 1 July 2024 
  • Executive Director of Ujjivan SFB – Carol Furtado (3 years) 

7. Japan’s Mizuho hires Sanjay Nayar as advisor for Mizuho Bank India 

  • Mizuho Financial Group has hired private equity veteran Sanjay Nayar as an external senior advisor for Mizuho Bank India (Mizuho). 
  • It is Japan’s third-largest lender with $2 trillion in assets. 
  • Nayar, who started his career as a banker at Citibank, served as the CEO of Citigroup’s Indian and South Asian operations and was a member of Citigroup’s management committee and Asia executive operating committee. 

Sports News

8. Nandini dairy to sponsor for Scotland for T20 World Cup 

  • Scotland cricket team has unveiled its new ICC T20 World Cup jersey with Karnataka Milk Federation’s (KMF) Nandini logo. 
  • The Nandini logo is featured in the leading arm of the jersey in both English and Kannada. The jersey was launched in Edinburgh by members of the playing squad. 
  • The Nandini brand, which is a household name in Karnataka, is sponsoring Scotland and Ireland teams in the forthcoming T20 World Cup. 
  • The tournament is set to begin from June 2 in the West Indies and the USA. 
  • The sponsorship amount is around Rs 2.5 crore per team. Further, the KMF is also launching Nandini Splash, a whey-based energy drink in the US during the tournament. 
  • Managing Director of KMF – M K Jagadish 

Important day 

9. 18 May – World AIDS Vaccine Day 

  • World AIDS Vaccine Day, also known as HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, is observed annually on May 18. 
  • Objective – To raise awareness about the ongoing fight against HIV/AIDS and the importance of developing a vaccine. 
  • The day marks the anniversary of a 1997 speech by US President Bill Clinton highlighting the importance of an HIV vaccine. 

What Is AIDS? 

  • AIDS is Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a serious condition which is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). 
  • This virus attacks the body’s immune system targeting CD4 cells which are crucial in fighting infections and diseases. 
  • AIDS is diagnosed when a person with HIV has a severely compromised immune system indicated by a low CD4 cell count. It can become life-threatening when left untreated. 

Causes And Symptoms 

  • HIV could transmit through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, anal fluids and breast milk. 
  • The virus can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse and sharing needles or syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood. 
  • It can also be transmitted from an HIV-infected mother to a child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. 
  • The symptoms include fever, joint pain, chills, muscle pain, sore throat, enlarged glands, sweating (particularly at night), red rashes on the body, and fatigue. 

10. 18 May – International Museum Day 

  • International Museum Day is celebrated annually on May 18. 
  • Objective – To raise awareness about the importance of museums in cultural exchange, the enrichment of cultures, and the development of mutual understanding, cooperation, and peace among peoples. 
  • Theme 2024 – Museums for Education and Research 
  • Established during the ICOM General Assembly in 1977 in Moscow, Russia, International Museum Day aimed to create an annual event that would unite museums and raise global awareness about their activities. 
  • It bore the message that museums are essential for cultural exchange, mutual understanding, peace, and cooperation among individuals. 

11. 18 May 2024 – Armed Forces Day 

  • Armed Forces Day is celebrated every year on the third Saturday of every May. This year celebrated on 18 May. 
  • The best way to celebrate Armed Forces Day is by recogising an armed forces service member and pay your respect. 
  • On August 31, 1949, Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson announced that Armed Forces Day will be celebrated every year. 
  • President Harry S. Truman was the first person to propose the idea of celebrating a holiday to honour the services provided by the military forces of the country. 
  • On May 20, 1950, Armed Forces Day was celebrated for the first time with parades, air shows and open houses. 
  • In 1962, President John F Kennedy announced Armed Forces Day as an official holiday.

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