Current Affairs | National | International | SSC | UPSC 23rd May 2024

National News 

1. Government of India started 'Project ISHAN' for 'One Nation, One Airspace' 

  • Government of India has initiated the process of consolidating its 4 aviation sectors spread across the country into a single entity under the initiative Indian Single Sky Harmonized Air Traffic Management (ISHAN) with the objective of 'One Nation, One Airspace'. 
  • Currently Indian airspace is divided into 4 Aviation Information Regions (FIRs) at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai and a sub-FIR at Guwahati each managed separately. 
  • Under ISHAN, these will be consolidated into a single continuous airfield centered at Nagpur. Combining India's four airspace zones into a single system overseen from Nagpur should streamline and secure air traffic management. To improve and accelerate air traffic control across India. 
  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has invited expressions of interest to prepare a detailed project report for the Indian Single Sky Harmonized Air Traffic Management (ISHAN) initiative centered on Nagpur. 
  • This consolidation is expected to streamline operations, increase capacity and reduce congestion, benefiting both airlines and passengers. The model mirrors existing practices in Chennai and Kolkata, offering a comprehensive view of air traffic flows and emergencies across the country. 
  • AAI was formed by an Act of Parliament and came into existence on April 1, 1995 by the merger of the erstwhile National Airports Authority and the International Airports Authority of India. It functions under the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India. 

2. Delay in publishing consumer price index unusual: CITU 

  • The Centre of Indian Trade Unions has questioned the delay in releasing the All India Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (AICPI-IW) for February and March. In a letter to Union Labour Minister Bhupender Yadav, CITU general secretary Tapan Sen urged the Centre to release the data, compiled by the Labour Bureau, without delay and said such a delay is very unusual. 
  • He said that AICPI-IW is a very important labour statistics as it is indispensable for the regulation of wages and dearness allowance for millions of workers and employees in the country. "These indices are also used for measuring inflation and other policy formulations. But, we are constrained to bring to your notice that it has not been released for the last two months February and March 2024," he said. 
  • He added that the index for April is to be released on May 31 as per the norms and practices. "... In the meantime, through a press release, we learnt that the Labour Ministry promised to release the AICPI-IW for February 2024 on March 28. But it didn't do so. Similarly, the index for March, 2024 should have been released on April 30, 2024. That also didn't take place," Mr. Sen said in the letter. 

3. Serum Institute of India sent the first consignment of malaria vaccine sent to Africa 

  • The Serum Institute of India (SII) achieved an important milestone on 20 May 2024 with a shipment of the first set of R21/Matrix-M Malaria vaccine in seven-eight countries in Africa. The flag-off function of R21/Matrix-M ™ malaria vaccine took place in the facility of Serum Institute of India in Pune. 
  • SII has manufactured 25 million doses, SII CEO Adar Poonawala said they have 100 million doses per year. Currently, 43,200 doses out of the total 1,63,800 doses allotted for the Central African Republic (CAR) region were sent with SII facility. 
  • The initial shipment will be sent to CAR, followed by other African countries such as South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo in the coming days. Serum Institute of India is the largest manufacturer in the world in terms of dosage. 
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every year about five million children die of malaria in the African region. R21 // Matrix-M vaccine is the second malaria vaccine authorized for use in children in malaria-sustainable regions. 
  • In October 2021, the first malaria vaccine, RTS, S was recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in children. Poonawala said, "This is a malaria vaccine for the African continent." It is not for India because parasitic is found in Africa. 


  • Leveraaging Novavax's SaponinBased Assistant Technology, The R21/Matrix-M Malaria Vaccine Developed Through a collaboration between the jenner institute of the university Upport from the European Wellcom Trust, and The European Investment Bank (EIB), and the developing countries clinical trials partnership (EDCTP). 
  • Established in 1966, SII has played an important role in reducing the prices of essential vaccines such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertusis, HIB, BCG, R-Hepatitis B, measles, kanthamala and rubella to improve global health. 
  • In particular, he is the creator of the world's most affordable PCV 'Pneumosil' and the first indigenous QHPV vaccine 'Sarvavaac' in India. Novawaax, Gethersburg, MD, a global company based on US offers a differential vaccine platform 

Astrazheneka's first cancer drug production center in Singapore 

  • Astrajneca is building a leading manufacturing plant of $ 1.5 billion to produce an antibody-drawing conjugate (ADC) to produce an advanced cancer-fighting drugs in Singapore. 
  • The new facility is supported by the Singapore Economic Development Board. This feature will be Astjeneca's first end-to-end ADC production site. With the beginning of construction starting by the end of 2024 and the hopes of starting operations in 2029, the feature will play an important role in Astrazenca's global manufacturing network. 
  • Antibody-Drag Conjugates (ADC) are the antibodies designed to target and destroy tumor cells by transporting sales-killing chemicals directly on the site. 

4. GalaxEye becomes the first private company in the world to test SAR technology on NAL satellite 

  • Bengaluru-based space-tech startup GalaxyEye on May 21, 2024 said it has successfully tested its cutting-edge Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology on the High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) platform developed by the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL). 
  • "This achievement establishes GalaxEye as the first private entity in the world to conduct SAR testing on a HAPS system," the firm said. 
  • HAPS are stratospheric, solarpowered drones capable of extended aerial surveillance missions. By integrating its new SAR sensor, GalaxyEye has overcome a major challenge faced by traditional electro-optical cameras – the inability to capture clear imagery through cloud cover. 
  • In addition to high-quality, allweather, day-night imaging capabilities, the company's SAR technology is also capable of SAR environmental monitoring and disaster management. Last year, the company collaborated with ISRO and DRDO in radar imaging through unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). 
  • Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar used to create twodimensional images or threedimensional reconstructions of objects such as landscapes. 
  • NISAR is the world's most expensive Earth-imaging satellite. This is a joint satellite of America and India, it is to be launched from Indian soil. 

'Pulsed Plasma Rocket' to reach Mars in 2 months 

  • The pulsed plasma rocket (PPR), developed by Howe Industries, supported by NASA, is a propulsion system that could allow travel between Earth and the Red Planet in just two months. 
  • Originating from the pulsed fission fusion concept, PPR uses a fissionbased nuclear power system. However, PPR is smaller, simpler, and more economical than previous concepts. 
  • PPR can support very heavy spacecraft, meaning that additional shielding can be installed to reduce the crew's exposure to harmful high-energy particles, called galactic cosmic rays, endured during long-duration space flight. 

5. Indian Oil Corporation Limited exports the first consignment of 'XP100' to Sri Lanka 

  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) exported the first consignment of 100 octane premium fuel to Sri Lanka, XP100. V. Satish Kumar, Director (Marketing) of Indian Oil, flagged off shipment at Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai.
  • The XP100 has been developed at the domestic level, taking advantage of IndianOil's indigenous octax technology. Designed with anti-nock properties, it has been engineered to increase engine performance, rapid acceleration, smooth operating capacity and better fuel economy. 
  • This formulation reduces engine deposits and emissions in high compression ratio engines, adapting to the performance and longevity of the vehicle, reducing maintenance. It is quite low telpy emissions with environmentfriendly fuel. Earlier, the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) launched the country's first 100 octane petrol XP100.
  • The fuel is constructed at the Mathura Refinery of IOC in Uttar Pradesh. Initially 10 cities - Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Agra, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Mumbai, Pune and Ahmedabad will be available at selected outlets of IOC. 
  • The octane rating is the measure of fuel stability. It is the measure of the ability to avoid fuel knocking. The knock occurs when fuel in the engine cylinder ignites prematurely, which reduces efficiency and can be harmful to the engine. The higher the octane number, the more resistant to knocking the petrol mixture. 
  • Worldwide, only six countries for 100 octane petrol luxury vehicles are available in America, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Malaysia and Israel. 
  • At most retail stations, three octane grades are offered, 87 (regular), 89 (middle-grade) and 91– 94 (premium). Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) launched Octane 99. 

6. Noise acquires women’s wellness platform SocialBoat 

  • Leading smartwatch and connected lifestyle brand, Noise has acquired AI-powered women’s wellness platform SocialBoat for an undisclosed amount. 
  • This strategic move is part of Noise’s broader strategy to advance innovation in smart rings. 
  • This acquisition will expand its tech offerings and build specialized innovation capabilities for its flagship smart wearable, Luna Ring.
  • Noise aims to redefine consumers’ experience of its smart ring, by strengthening the health tracking analytics and will now be able to integrate AI to ensure overall wellbeing of the women cohort as well, enabling them to achieve their full potential and ‘rise to brilliance. 

7. CDS Anil Chauhan attends Exercise Cyber Suraksha 2024 

  • Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Gen Anil Chauhan attended ‘Exercise Cyber Suraksha – 2024’ and underscored the importance of strengthening India’s cyber defence capabilities. 
  • The comprehensive cyber defence exercise is being conducted by Defence Cyber Agency. 
  • It aims to further develop Cyber Defence Capability of all Cyber security organisations and promote synergy amongst all stakeholders. 
  • It focusses on enhancing collaboration and integration among participants from various military and prominent national organizations. 

8. Cisco and Tata Communications partner to launch Webex Calling in India 

  • Cisco and Tata Communications have launched their Webex Calling solution in India with cloud public switched telephone network (PSTN), aimed at helping enterprises move from on-premises phone systems to a global cloud calling system. 
  • The calls will be routed via Tata Communications’ data centre in the Mumbai region, thereby helping organisations stay compliant with local regulations 
  • Webex Calling is a modern and complete business phone system that delivers enterprise-grade calling through a globally available cloud platform with over 14 million users around the world. 
  • It provides businesses with powerful innovations, flexible deployment options, and centralised administration. 

International News 

9. Ireland, Norway and Spain set to formally recognise Palestine 

  • Ireland, Norway and Spain announced on Wednesday that they will formally recognise the state of Palestine, even as reports emerged of Israel pushing its way further into Rafah in southern Gaza. 
  • Israel reacted furiously to the announcements by recalling its Ambassadors to the three countries. The recognition of Palestine is expected to take place on May 28. 
  • Speaking at a press con- ference in Dublin, Ireland's Prime Minister Simon Har- ris linked the recognition to Ireland's own freedom struggle from Britain. 
  • "Today, we use the same language to support the recognition of Palestine as a state," he said. 
  • In a separate message released online, Mr. Harris said Ireland believed that recognising a Palestinian state would lead to peace and reconciliation in West Asia. Ireland also recognised Israel's right to "exist securely and at peace" with its neighbors. There should be no further military incursion into Rafah (i.e., by Israel), and no further rockets fired at Israel by Hamas and Hezbollah, Mr. Harris said. 

10. Sunak announces U.K. poll for July 4 

  • The U.K. will go to the polls on July 4 to elect a new parliament, its Prime Minister, Rishi Sunak, announced on Wednesday, possibly ending a 14 year run of Conservative government that spanned five Prime Ministers. 
  • Buoyed by news of inflation hitting a three-year low, Mr. Sunak took to a wet lectern in the pouring rain outside No.10 Downing Street to announce the election and deliver what appeared to be a campaign speech.
  • "I came to office, above all, to restore economic stability," Mr. Sunak said, citing the recent inflation numbers and GDP growth figures. "This is proof that the plan and priorities I set out are working," he added. 
  • The 44-year-old former banker of Indian descent couched Britain's electoral choices and the global context in stark terms: continuing with progress or entering a future without a plan. 
  • His speech touched on technology competition with China, the U.K.'s challenges with irregular migration, the conflict in West Asia and Islamist extremism, which he said was threatening regional and global stability.
  • "These tensions are exploited by extremists who seek to undermine our values and divide our society," he said.
  • Mr. Sunak accused the Opposition Labour Party of not having a plan. "And as a result the future can only be uncertain with them," he said, as he attacked Labour leader Keir Starmer. 
  • Labour has been twenty points ahead of the Tories, on average, in opinion polls. Mr. Starmer has also been polling ahead of Mr. Sunak in terms of favorability ratings. 
  • Labour has moved closer to the center under the 61-year-old former lawyer, including by distancing itself from its former leftwing leader Jeremy Corbyn who now sits as an independent MP (while still a member of the party). 
  • "The answer is not five more years of the Tories," Mr. Starmer said in a video response to the announcement, in which he also said that the only answer was a "changed Labour party". "The truth is the Conservative Party do face a major challenge," political scientist John Curtice told the BBC on Wednesday. 
  • "It's a challenge not dissimilar to that [former Conservative Prime Minister] John Major faced in 1997," he added, referring to an election in which Labour, led by Tony Blair, won a landslide victory. 
  • The U.K. Parliament will now formally be dissolved by King Charles III on May 30. 

11. 'Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos emerge as hub of organized financial crimes’ 

  • Nearly half of financial frauds targeting Indians originate from the three south-east Asian countries of Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos, and many web applications used to commit the frauds are written in Chinese language, thereby not ruling out the Chinese connection, Rajesh Kumar, Chief Executive Officer of the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre, said on Wednesday. 
  • Mr. Kumar said in the first four months of the year, Indians had lost over *1,776 crore in 89,054 cas- es of financial crimes such as digital arrest, stock market scams, investment scams and romance or dating scams and there had been a "spurt in organized crime from south-east Asia." These complaints were received on the national cybercrime portal and not all of them were converted into First Information Reports. 
  • A total of 3.25 lakh mule bank accounts, 595 apps and more than 3,000 URLs had been blocked in the past four months. 
  • Additionally, 5.3 lakh SIM cards and 80,848 IMEI numbers had been suspended since July 2023 and 3,401 WhatsApp groups had been taken down in the past two months. 
  • The officer added that on May 20, many Indians working in a suspected scam compound in Sihanouk city, Cambodia protested against their employers. "Some of them join willingly and some are duped into joining these centers with the fake promise of a data entry operator. They arrive on tourist visas in Thailand and due to an ungoverned border and human traffickers, they end up in these compounds where they are made to work for long hours. Indians erupted in protest as they wanted their passports back, the Andhra Pradesh police are investigating the case and three recruiting agents have been arrested," Mr. Kumar said. 

12. Contaminated blood scandal in UK which took the lives of at least 3,000 people 

  • The report of an independent investigation into the United Kingdom's contaminated blood scandal was published on 20 May 2024, finding that the government concealed errors that led to thousands of people becoming infected with HIV or hepatitis. 
  • The contaminated blood scandal represents one of the deadliest treatment disasters in the history of the state-funded National Health Service (NHS). 
  • Inquiry chair Brian Langstaff said that successive governments hid the truth "to save face and save expense" and that the cover-up was "more subtle, more widespread and more sinister in its implications" than any organized conspiracy. 
  • Prime Minister Rishi Sunak said it was "a day of shame for the British state". "I want to apologize wholeheartedly for this terrible injustice," he said in parliament. The British government will provide compensation of more than 10 billion pounds ($12.70 billion). 
  • The investigation was launched six years ago in 2017, when Theresa May was prime minister. 
  • Its purpose was to look at how thousands of people contracted fatal diseases from transfusions of infected blood products in the 1970s and 1980s. By 2019, approximately 3,000 people were estimated to have died from complications. 
  • In October 2022, British authorities made an interim payment of £100,000 to each survivor and bereaved family. 


  • The NHS is an inclusive public health service under government administration, established by the National Health Service Act of 1946 and subsequent legislation in 1948. It covers the entire UK population, and health services are provided free to the public. 
  • During the 1970s and 1980s, thousands of people suffering from the blood clotting disease hemophilia were given blood donated or sold by people infected with the HIV virus and hepatitis. 
  • Contaminated blood was also given to people who needed blood transfusions after childbirth or surgery. 
  • Investigation reports estimated that more than 30,000 people were infected with HIV, hepatitis C or both, including 1,250 hemophilia patients. Most Hep C infections were seen in transfusion recipients, and approximately 380 children were infected with HIV. 

13. 10th World Water Forum started in Bali, Indonesia 

  • Indonesian President Joko Widodo officially inaugurated the 10th World Water Forum at the Bali Nusa Dua Convention Center (BNDCC) from 20-25 May 2024. In his speech, Jokovi discussed the Bali Subak Irrigation System, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2012. 
  • It will be held at 2 places; Venue Bali Collection and Tsunami Shelter Plaza Kuta. This forum is held every three years since its inauguration in 1997. Established in 1996, the World Water Council has 260 member organizations from 52 countries of 5 continents. 
  • At the inauguration ceremony, World Water Council President Loik Fauchon hoped that Indonesia's works could be repeated by all countries and emphasized the importance of water security and protection. 
  • After the inauguration ceremony, President Joko presided over a high-level meeting, where he said that all countries shared knowledge, promote new solutions and to resolve water challenges by implementing integrated water resources management and to resolve water challenges. It should be used as a speed to reinforce collective commitment. 
  • On this occasion, Bali Yuva Yojana is hosting several additional programs including Vishwa Yuva Parliament Water Sessions, World Water Council Youth Representative Session and Youth Award. 
  • The forum fair and expo also began with a total of 160 participants from 17 countries, while Bali Street Carnival made the day alive with the parade. The 9th World Jal Manch was held in March 21-26, 2022 Dakar, Senegal. 

14. Spain becomes 99th member of International Solar Alliance 

  • Spain has become the 99th member of the International Solar Alliance. 
  • Spain handed over the International Solar Alliance Instrument of Ratification, during the meeting of Ambassador José María Ridao Domínguez of Spain with the Head of Depository, Joint Secretary in the External Affairs Ministry Abhishek Singh in New Delhi. 
  • The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies as a means for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in its member countries. 
  • The ISA was conceived as a joint effort by India and France to mobilize efforts against climate change through the deployment of solar energy solutions. 
  • It was conceptualized on the sidelines of the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris in 2015. 
  • Headquarters of ISA – Gurugram, Haryana 

About Spain 

  • Capital- Madrid 
  • Currency – Euro 
  • Prime Minister– Pedro Sánchez 
  • Official language– Spanish 

Ranks & Reports News 

15. Human drugs with a vet's label puts govt. body in a soup 

  • In a major goof-up that has belatedly come to light, Karnataka State Medical Supplies Corporation Ltd. (KSMSCL) procured seven drugs, including nasal solution and eye drops, labeled as those for the Animal Husbandry Veterinary Sciences (AHVS) Department. Over 25% of the procured stock was supplied to Health Department hospitals for human use. 
  • While Health Minister Dinesh Gundu Rao clarified that the drugs procured by KSMSCL from a Panic among patients 
  • However, this has led to panic among patients who have visited State-run hospitals in the last three months. On January 5, a private pharmaceutical company Pushkar Pharma Ltd. supplied the products to all the KSMSCL warehouses in the State. Subsequently, an official from the corporation's Kodagu warehouse noticed the AHVS logo on the products and brought it to the attention of the higher officials. 
  • When officials took this up with the pharma company, the company requested KSMSCL on January 18 to accept the supplied stock with the error in the logogram design. The company assured the officials that it was only a logo misprint and that the products were of standard quality and safe for use in humans. They also offered to mask the AHVS logo on the products at their own cost. Although tampering with logos and labels on medicinal products is a violation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, the KSMSCL allowed the company to mask the logo and also slapped a 1% penalty [of the purchase order va- lue of ₹62.89 lakh) as per tender conditions. 
  • Printing error KSMSCL Managing Director Chidananda S. Vatare, who asserted that it was only a printing error, told The Hindu on Wednesday that the masking of the logo did not amount to a violation of the Act. 
  • Calling upon people not to panic, Mr. Vatare said the company has also submitted product permission copies that confirm that these products (drugs) are as per Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) standards and for human use only. 
  • "The analytical test reports of the products also confirmed that these products are of standard quality as defined under the Act," Mr. Vatare said. While acknowledging negligence by the compa- ny, the official said the company has given in writing that it has not supplied these products to the AHVS department. 

Science & Technology News 

16. OpenAI launches ‘GPT-4o’, the fastest and most powerful AI model ever 

  • Recently OpenAI launched its latest Large Language Model (LLM) named GPT-4o, it is described as the fastest and most powerful AI model to date. 
  • GPT-4o ("o" here stands for "omni") is a transformative AI model developed by OpenAI to enhance human-computer interaction. 
  • It allows users to input any combination of text, audio, and image and receive responses in the same formats, making it a multimodal AI format. 
  • LLMs are the main components of GPT-4o. To enable these models to learn on their own, they are fed massive amounts of data. 
  • For example, previous models required separate formats for transcription, intelligence, and text-to-speech in voice mode, but GPT-4o integrates all these capabilities into a single model. 
  • It can process and understand the input more holistically, including tone, background noise, and emotional context in the audio input. 
  • The GPT-4o excels in areas such as speed and efficiency and answers questions as fast as a human being, at approximately 232 to 320 milliseconds of conversation. 
  • LLM is an AI program capable of recognizing and producing language. LLMs are trained on huge datasets using machine learning and deep learning, specifically on Transformer models, which mimic the neural structure of the human brain. 

Appointment News

17. Government appoints Ramesh Babu V as Member in Central Electricity Regulatory Commission 

  • Shri Ramesh Babu V. has taken oath of office and secrecy as Member, Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. 
  • The oath of office and secrecy was administered to him, by the Union Minister for Power and New & Renewable Energy Shri R. K. Singh. 
  • The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) was established by the Government of India under the provisions of the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998. 
  • CERC is the Central Commission for the purposes of the Electricity Act, 2003 which has repealed the ERC Act, 1998. 
  • The Commission consists of a chairperson and three other Members. Additionally, Chairperson, Central Electricity Authority is the ex-officio Member of the Commission. 

Sports News

18. 2nd stage of Archery World Cup 2024 begins in Korea 

  • The second stage of the Archery World Cup 2024 begins at Yecheon in Korea. 
  • India has sent the same 16-member team that took part in the first stage in Shanghai, China last month. 
  • The Indian contingent emerged as the champion team in the first stage, with a total of eight medals, including five gold medals, two silver, and one bronze. 
  • This was India’s highest medal tally at any single edition of an archery World Cup. 
  • Stage three of the prestigious tournament will be held in Antalya, Turkiye, while the final stage will be held in Tlaxcala, Mexico. 

19. Sachin Khilari clinches gold medal in shot put at World Para Athletics Championship 

  • \In Para Athletics, India’s Sachin Sarjerao Khilari clinched the gold medal in the men’s shot put at the World Para Athletics Championship in Kobe, Japan. 
  • He also set a new Asian record with a throw of 16.30 metres in the F46 category, to defended his title at the world championships. 
  • Another Indian, Dharambir bagged the Bronze Medal in the Men’s Club Throw. His final throw distance of 33.31 metres not only secured him the Bronze Medal but also set a new Asian Record in the F51 Category.
  • Mariyappan Thangavelu clinched his maiden gold medal at the World Para Athletics by leaping 1.88m in the men’s T63 high jump event. Award News NTPC got third place in ‘ATD Best Awards 2024’ 
  • NTPC has achieved an impressive feat by securing the 3rd rank globally in the ATD Best Awards 2024, its highest ranking among all Indian companies. Notably, NTPC is the only PSU to receive this prestigious award seven times in the last eight years. 
  • Ms. Rachna Singh Bhal, CGM (Strategic Human Resource and Talent Management), NTPC, accepted the award at a ceremony held in New Orleans, USA on May 21, 2024. 
  • ATD Best Awards, instituted by the Association for Talent Development (ATD), USA, is one of the most respected international awards in the field of Learning and Development (L&D). 
  • It honors organizations that leverage talent development as a strategic business tool and demonstrate enterprise-wide success through effective employee development practices. 
  • NTPC is India's largest power utility with a total installed capacity of 76,015 MW (including JVs). Established in 1975, NTPC is moving towards becoming India's largest integrated power company and aims to have a capacity of 130 GW by 2032. 

Important day 

20. 23 May – World Turtle Day 

  • World Turtle Day is observed every year on 23 May. 
  • Objective – To raise awareness about the lifestyle and habitat of turtles as well as tortoises and urge people to understand them better and contribute to their wellbeing. 
  • It was started in the year 2000 by American tortoise Rescue as a way of urging people to come together to understand tortoises and turtles better. 

21. 23 May – 2586th birth anniversary of Gautama Buddha 

  • Buddha Purnima, or Buddha Jayanti or Vesak, is an annual celebration observed on the first full moon of the Hindu calendar month Vaishakha. 
  • Buddhists worldwide celebrate Buddha Purnima with great fervour. This year, Buddha Purnima observed on 23rd May (Thursday). 
  • This significant day commemorates the birth of Lord Gautam Buddha, who was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautam in Lumbini, present-day Nepal, around 563 BC. 
  • He overcame the cycle of birth and rebirth, taking on the roles of philosopher, spiritual guide, religious leader, and devoted meditator. Buddha Purnima celebrates the ‘Enlightened One’, who achieved liberation from the cycle of rebirth. 
  • In North India, Buddha is regarded as the ninth incarnation and Lord Krishna as the eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu. 
  • Conversely, in South Indian tradition, Buddha is not seen as an avatar of Vishnu. Instead, Balarama is revered as the eighth incarnation and Krishna as the ninth. 
  • Most Vaishnava movements recognize Balarama as an incarnation of Vishnu, while Buddhists do not view Buddha as an avatar of Lord Vishnu.

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